Mar 312010

Order Management process (Order Handling in eTOM terms) belongs to the Fulfillment vertical in eTOM. It is also in the CRM functional grouping and considered in the BSS domain. Order Managers automate the order handling process and track the whole lifecycle of an order (from the creation stage to provisioning).

All the Order Management, sometimes called Customer Order Management, products come with a workflow engine. (Either external or a propriety, bundled one) and typically there will be more than one deployed workflows. (Based on product type, customer type etc.) The workflows automate the tasks that should be done in order to fulfill an end-to-end customer order.

Order Management starts with Order Capturing. Order Capturing stage is where we collect the order specific parameters. These may be customer choices, provisioning related parameters and some price related parameters. (Reduction rate, promotions etc.). During order capturing, order is also validated against some basic validation rules. Typically, a CRM system captures the order parameters and triggers a workflow on the order manager side. (Over a service bus)

Second step is the Order Decomposition. Generally, Customer Orders represent the Product Orders.(i.e composed of one or more product provisioning requests). Products may include multiple Customer Facing Services and Physical Resources. The Order Manager should know this hierarchy for a particular product and decompose the Product Order into Service Order(s). Service Orders are then be handled by Service Activators to initiate Resource Orders that does the resource provisioning. (Either automatic or via manual work orders)

There is an important detail in the case where you separate your Order Capturing and Order Management platforms. (Typically that is the case in large implementations.) The CRM, (in the mean time your Product Manager) has the Product Catalog, so it knows the Product-to-service decompositions. If we want Order Manager to do the decomposition, it should have access to the Product catalog. This is possible in three ways. One way is you take full dump of product catalog from your product management platform (or CRM) and import it to the Order Manager, replicating the information. Second way is to use Product Manager’s NBIs to reach its’ inventory data. This is a better way. However, if we deploy a separate Inventory Management application that also employs the Product Catalog, this would be the best solution.

The workflow that the Order Manager is running is sometimes called the business workflow. It has interface with the customer, supplier/partners, billing system etc. It coordinates service activation workflows which activates/deactivates services in the infrastructure. Depending on the business processes, it may include availability checks, feasibility checks and credibility checks. It follows a specific business process.

Order managers allow us to provide our customers the progress of their order. This is increases the customer satisfaction. They reduce the operational expenses and order lifecyle times by increasing automation.

Mar 302010

OSS/J defines a common interface structure and SID based data model for the messages that are delivered between different OSS components (FM, PM, TT etc.). It aims to deliver interoperability between those components with minimum effort.

OSS/J initiative (previously by JCP, now TMF) is composed of specifications. Specifications are issued for OSS domains such as trouble ticket (TT), fault management (FM) etc. and they depict the attributes, naming conventions (templates) and mandatory/optional operations for that domain.

These specifications are fully implemented by the OSS vendors who claim that they are OSS/J compatible. The clients (other OSS components in the infrastructure) connect to the server by using these specifications.

OSS/J also provides 3 integration profiles: EJB (Java), JMS (XML) and web services. Profiles are the possible ways that you may connect to the OSS/J servers. A server may implement one of these, or all of these. Some vendors even add other non-standard profiles that enable the legacy clients to connect. The important part here is the nature of the message flow. For example, fault management is asynchronous in nature. So, for me, the best protocol to use would be JMS. For trouble ticket operations, which are synchronous in nature, we may use EJB or web service profiles.

How should we migrate our interfaces to OSS/J? Well, it is better to explain the process with an example.

Suppose, we have a fault management platform and a trouble ticket platform. We have an expert rule deployed in the fault manager that creates a trouble ticket when it receives a specific string in the alarm’s AdditionalText attribute. FM reaches TT via its “legacy” CORBA interface.

Our TT vendor says that their latest product version supports OSS/J TT Specification. (which means they wrote a server which expose OSS/J interface)

Since we want to migrate to that interface, we ask the vendor which version of the specification they have implemented on the server. They replied with the specification number: v1.2. We also learned that we can use EJB (Java) profile to reach their server.

A quick note: most probably, the vendor did not write the whole NBI stack, but they wrote an intermediary OSS/J server which, at the backend, communicates with the old NBI stack over CORBA. (There will be data mapping and conversions between the specifications) This way, they will able to support both CORBA clients and OSS/J clients and reduce time to market.

On the FM side, we need to write an OSS/J TT client that follows the v1.2 specification. (Generally we ask the FM vendor to write it for us). Within the client’s configuration, we will have to specify the connection details to the remote server. After the client is successfully connected to the server, it can issue calls to operations that are implemented on the server.

The important part in here is; if the vendor is saying, “I am OSS/J TT spec v1.2 compliant”; it should define all the mandatory operations that appear in the specification. For the clients, however, this is not mandatory. For example, if I only need to create a trouble ticket within my Fault Management application, and I do not care about closing it, I can implement only the create TT operation from the spec.

OSS/J brings portability. The client would work, in theory, with any TT OSS/J server (vendor) that conforms the same specification. I say, in theory, because most of the time you are required to do minor modifications on your client.

For those, who are interested in OSS/J, you may have a look at the TMF OSS/J site at:

Introduction to eTOM

 NGOSS  Comments Off on Introduction to eTOM
Mar 252010

eTOM is a map which categorizes and classifies the business processes of a service provider in a hierarchical structure. It gives us a common vocabulary of processes which brings huge benefits in defining business interactions with other entities such as suppliers, partners and customers. It also acts like a marketing tool where product vendors use to claim their products comply with eTOM and specific processes within it.

The best way to express large volume of information is to present it in a hierarchical structure. eTOM uses decomposition method between it’s elements to expose more details. Each process element in the hierarchy (the boxes), decomposes to more detailed process elements in the next level. Decomposition steps are called “levels”. The leveling starts at level-0 and continues. In theory the maximum decomposition level is limitless however in practice we do not see decompositions above level 7. Current version of eTOM (v8) decomposes the process elements until level-3. There are some level-4 decompositions but level-4 is not common yet.

eTOM gives you the process elements to be used when constructing your organizational business flows. The important detail is, it does not mandate how those process elements should interact with each other or how you should order them. eTOM says, these flows are organization specific and it is impossible to cover every different flow in a generic framework. However, as a guideline, TM Forum provides some common flows as an addendum to the framework documentation.

eTOM can be used to construct business flows of new products/services/policies etc. It’s more common use is to guide the re-engineering efforts. Service providers are applying assessments to themselves to see if their current processes comply with the best practices, if they have duplicate or missing processes that may lead to organizational inefficiencies. I will comment on this topic in another article.

We talked about the levels in eTOM. Understanding the levels are important as they define the scope of the process elements you will see in that particular view.

Level 0 does not give us much detail. It is the place where we see the domain areas that we may encounter in a service provider. SIP (Strategy and Commit, Infrastructure, Product), OPS (Operations) and Enterprise. Within the Level 0, we also see the horizontal groupings. It is important that these groupings align with the SID. Level 0 defines the business activities of a service provider organization.

Level 1 introduces new horizontal and vertical groupings. I will not name them all in here. The important detail is the level-1 vertical groupings are overlays on the framework decomposition hierarchy. In a correct decomposition hierarchy, each element should appear only once. That is because the horizontal ones are chosen in the decomposition hierarchy and the vertical ones are left as overlays. The overlaid ones denote the elements’ nature and help us to locate elements that most-probably appear in the end-to-end process flows such as fulfillment. Level 1 is sometimes called CxO view as it focuses on the horizontal and vertical groupings that should be under the responsibility of CIOs and CEOs respectively.

Level 2 is what we can call the core business process view. Process engineering starts here because this is where the process elements (boxes) appear. We can start building the highest level process flows in this context.

Level 3 is the business process flow view that enables us to draw more detailed flow diagrams.

Level 4 and below belongs to the operational processes and highly specific to organizations. We will see product or service specific processes and procedures in those lower levels.

IP Probes

 SQM  Comments Off on IP Probes
Mar 242010

In order to get the end-to-end network performance data, we should install probes to the infrastructure. Probes are the most effective way to reach the end-to-end performance that is perceived by the end user. An alternative approach is to correlate multiple node-to-node performance data to reach the end-to-end performance metrics. This is very hard to maintain and may cause misleading results so we should always use probes where possible.

There are two types of probes. Active and Passive.

Passive probes passively monitor the packets that are passed through them. Basically in the entrance point, they monitor the packet header to identify the source address, destination address and some other information. The remote probe at the exit point does the same. Both probes send this information along with the timestamps to the management system where they are correlated and converted to performance metrics. Passive probing is a costly solution. Its’ main benefit is, they do not generate any traffic so maximum throughput is maintained.

Active Probes, on the other hand, generate special traffic between each other to measure the end-to-end performance. Some probe vendors use ICMP PDUs for this purpose. Other vendors, such as Cisco, prefer to send special PDUs that have additional parameters. Active Probes are cost effective when compared to the passive ones. They should be the preferred approach to measure IP based traffic.

Probes can be external (hardware based) or internal (software based). Software based probes are easier to deploy and maintain. Most popular software based internal probes are Cisco SAA probes (IP SLA).

Probes provide granular data. Typically this data is collected and further aggregated by the performance management systems and forwarded to other systems such as SQM.

Mar 242010

SLA (Service Level Agreement) is a contract between the service provider and the customer. This contract makes commitments about the service’s quality that is perceived by the customer.

There are 2 main types of SLAs: Customer and Operational. Customer SLAs are the ones that are sold to the customers. Operational SLAs are also two types: OLAs and underpinning SLAs. OLAs are internal to the provider. For example they are the commitments that are agreed between two departments. Underpinning SLAs, on the other hand, are signed with suppliers/partners of the provider.

SLA Management starts with the business commitment. As SLAs need the full support of the organization involving multiple functional groups, there should be a common understanding about the vocabulary, methodologies and consequences.

A typical SLA Management process includes the following 5 steps:

1- ) Creating the SLA Template

SLA templates define the SLAs that will be negotiated with the customers. They include service level indicators (SLIs) that will be monitored such as availability (downtime), reliability (exp. MTBF) and maintainability (exp. MTTR).
Typically SLA Templates also include service levels such as gold, silver, bronze that indicates the acceptable, offered SLI values. A gold service level may say %99,99 availability and 1 hour MTTR while a silver one may commit on %99,98 availability with a 2 hour MTTR. Service levels SHOULD be decided with the cooperation among the marketing and the operational teams. I have seen some examples in which the service levels are decided by the marketing teams (most probably with values that the competitors are committing on) and mandated to the operational teams. The operational teams however were complaining that those values were almost impossible to be maintained.
SLAs should be designed with care as they have a direct interface with the customers and have financial impacts. Service levels also limit the “expectation creep” and set the acceptable targets.

There are other parameters of the SLA templates; terms and conditions, penalties, roles and responsibilities, calendar to name a few.

2- ) Negotiate the SLA

This step mainly belongs to the sales area. In this section the provider and the customer works on the SLA Templates to construct the “customized” SLA that aligns with the customer’s business. In this step, the customer, hopefully, selects a service level that suits the needs. However, customers may (and generally do) want to have some SLI commitments that do not match any service level in the template. The reasons could be several. For example, the customer may be running a business critical service and the committed SLI values may not satisfy the customer. Another example would be the case of aligning OLAs/underpinning SLAs with customer SLAs. (I will explain this in a later post).

Sales can agree on any values with the customer to gain the customer. We should avoid this situation. All the custom service levels should be negotiated with the operations before the contract is signed by the customers.

3- ) Monitor the SLAs

SLAs should be monitored and violations and degradations should be notified. After the contract is signed, SLA instance is created within the SLA Management tool (and the SQM tool if it is separate). This step is the service quality monitoring step and it is mainly targeted to the operational teams of the provider. There may be a customer interface for the customer to see the current accumulated downtime / incident records but this is real time and exposing this to the customer is not chosen by most of the providers.

4- ) Report the SLAs

SLA Reports should be generated at the end of reporting periods. The reports should not directly be sent to the customer from the tool as they may have financial impacts. There should be a control mechanism on the provider side before they are “published”. The customer should be given an interface to the SLA Tool to see his previous SLA reports. (If featured by the tool)

5- ) Review the SLAs
SLAs and their parameters should be reviewed occasionally and service levels should be fine-tuned.

SLA Management is a complex process that involves multiple tools, organizational units and the customers. There is a lot to talk about the SLA Management. I will continue writing about SLA Management to explore more details on specific areas.